In recent years, the intelligent manufacturing boom has swept the land of shenzhou, making it the most important move to promote the "made in China 2025" national strategy. Among them, Smart Factory, as an important practical field of intelligent manufacturing, has attracted the attention of manufacturers and governments at all levels. This paper will analyze the current situation and problems of intelligent factory construction at home and abroad, the connotation of intelligent factory, and the successful way to promote the construction of intelligent factory.
Analysis on the current situation of intelligent factory construction at home and abroad.
In recent years, major economies around the world have been pushing hard to revive manufacturing. In the boom of industry 4.0, industrial Internet, Internet of things, cloud computing and so on, many of the world's best manufacturing enterprises have carried out intelligent factory construction practices.
For example, the west gate of anberg electronic factory has realized the multi-variety industrial control machine mixed line production; FANUC company implements the robot and the height of the servo motor production process automation and intelligent, and use the automated multi-layered storehouse in each workshop in intelligent manufacturing unit passed between materials, realizes the maximum 720 hours unattended; Schneider electric realizes the whole automation of electric switch manufacturing and packaging process. Harley-davidson inc. USES intelligent manufacturing units made of machining centers and robots to achieve mass customization. The new robot assembly line with man-machine combination is adopted by mitsubishi electric co., LTD., which realizes the transformation from automation to intellectualization, which significantly improves the production area of the unit. Global heavy card giant MAN company has set up a factory for the complete logistics system, using the AGV assembly parts and vehicle load, is advantageous for the flexible adjustment assembly line, and set up material supermarket, achieved significant results.
At present, the manufacturing enterprises in China are facing great transformation pressure. On the one hand, rapidly rising labor costs, overcapacity, fierce competition, customer factors such as the growing demand for personalized, forcing manufacturers from low cost competition strategy to establish a differentiated competitive advantage. At the factory level, the manufacturing enterprises are faced with the difficulties of recruitment, and the great pressure of the lack of professional technicians must be realized, and the construction of smart factories is urgently needed. On the other hand, the Internet of things, collaboration, robot, increase material manufacturing, predictive maintenance, emerging technology grew rapidly, such as machine vision for promoting the construction of intelligent factory manufacturing enterprises provides a good technical support. Coupled with the strong support of national and local governments, more and more large and medium-sized enterprises in various industries have embarked on the journey of building smart factories.
Our country automobile, household appliances, rail transportation, food and beverage, pharmaceutical, equipment manufacturing, industries such as household enterprise for production and assembly line automation, intelligent control, and establish a new intelligent factory very strong demand, spring from haier, midea, dongguan jin sheng, shang pin home delivery, such as intelligent model of the construction of the factory.
Haier foshan platen washing machine factory, for example, can be implemented in accordance with the order configuration, production and assembly, using high flexible automatic production line, no one widely used precise assembly robot, the MES system for the entire order fulfillment management system, through the RFID back all the way, realize the pattern in interconnection, machine interconnection and man-machine connection; Shang pin home delivery achieved from fashion design to the structure size of all-round personality customization, the establishment of a highly intelligent, production, processing and control system, can satisfy the consumer personalization produced by the special size and tectonic plate cutting processing requirements; Dongguan jin sheng comprehensive domestic machining center, the domestic numerical control system and the domestic software industry, has realized the networking equipment data automatic collecting and workshop, set up a factory of Digital mapping model (Digital Twin), build the following processing of intelligent factory.
However, there are still many problems and misunderstandings in the construction of intelligent factories in China.
We blindly buy automation equipment and automatic production line. Still think many manufacturing enterprises promote the intelligent automation and machine factory is humanization, blind pursuit of "black lamp factory", promote the simplex bit robot, pushing machine substitution, mount can only be processed or assembled a single rigid automatic production line of products. Only pay attention to buy high-end numerical control equipment, but do not have the corresponding software system.
It has not realized the automatic collection of equipment data and network of workshops. The enterprise does not require open data interface when purchasing equipment, most of the equipment cannot collect data automatically, and the workshop network is not realized. At present, all major automation manufacturers have their own industrial bus and communication protocol, and the application of OPC UA standard is not widely used.
The factory operation is still black box. Operating aspect also lack the support of information system in the factory workshop is still a black box, the production process is difficult to implement end-to-end traceability, is closely related to the production management of manufacturing BOM data, working hours is not accurate.
The performance of the equipment is not high. The production equipment is not fully utilized, the health status of the equipment is not effectively managed, and it is often due to the unplanned shutdown due to equipment failure, which affects the production.
There are still a lot of informationized islands and automated islands. The construction of intelligent factories involves the suppliers of intelligent equipment, automation control, sensors, industrial software and other fields. The integration is very difficult. Many enterprises not only have many information islands, but also have many automated islands. Automated production lines do not have a unified plan.
The reason is that intelligent manufacturing and intelligent factory cover a lot of fields, and the system is extremely complex, and the enterprise lacks deep understanding. In this situation, manufacturing enterprises should not rush forward and make a "great leap forward" in order to avoid the investment of enterprises. Should be based on practical experience of consulting services, combined with the enterprise internal lean team, IT, automation and high active participation, according to the enterprise product and production process, completes the demand analysis and overall planning, on the basis of safely ahead, actual effect can be achieved.
What is a smart factory?
What is a smart factory? The intelligent factory has the following six distinctive features:
Equipment interconnects. Can realize interconnection equipment and equipment (M2M), with the equipment control system integration, and external sensors, by the SCADA (data acquisition and monitoring system) state, real-time acquisition device in the production of complete information and quality information, and through the application of RFID (radio frequency) technology, such as bar code (2 d) a peacekeeping technology, realize the traceability of production process.
It is widely used in industrial software. Widely applied MES (manufacturing execution system), APS (advanced production scheduling), energy management, quality management and other industrial software to realize the visualization and transparency of production site. In the new factory, the simulation software of the digital factory can be used to carry out the simulation of equipment and production line layout, factory logistics and man-machine engineering, so as to ensure the reasonable structure of the factory. In the process of promoting digital transformation, it is necessary to ensure the safety of the plant's data security and equipment and automation system. When the defective products are detected by the professional testing equipment, they should not only be able to separate automatically with the qualified products, but also can analyze the causes of the quality problems through the software such as SPC (statistical process control).
Fully integrated with lean production philosophy. Fully embody the concept of industrial engineering and lean production, and can realize the production of production according to order, reduce the inventory of products and eliminate waste. The construction of intelligent factories should be fully integrated with the characteristics of enterprise products and processes. In the development stage, we also need to push forward standardization, modularization and serialization, laying the foundation for lean production.
It realizes flexible automation. Combined with the product and production characteristics of the enterprise, continuously improve the automation degree of production, testing and factory logistics. Enterprises with small product varieties and large production volume can realize high automation and even establish a black lamp factory. Small batch, multi - breed enterprises should pay attention to dehumanization, man-machine combination, do not blindly promote automation, should pay special attention to build intelligent manufacturing unit. The automatic production line and assembly line of the factory should consider the redundancy properly and avoid stopping the line due to the failure of key equipment. At the same time, we should give full consideration to how to change the mold rapidly, and can adapt to the production of mixed lines. Logistics is very important to realize intelligent factory automation, enterprise can through the AGV, rows posture manipulator, hanging conveyor chain and other logistics equipment material transfer between implementation process, and configuration material supermarket, as far as possible the material delivery to the line. The automation of quality detection is also very important, and the application of machine vision in intelligent factories will become more and more extensive. In addition, it is necessary to carefully consider how to use the booster equipment to reduce the labor intensity of workers.
We pay attention to environmental friendliness and realize green manufacturing. Be able to collect the energy consumption of equipment and production line in time to realize energy efficient utilization. In the process of danger and pollution, the replacement of human by robot is preferred, and recycling and reuse of wastes can be realized.
It allows for real-time insight. To achieve the feedback of completion information from the production scheduling instruction to realize the closed loop. Through the establishment of production command system, real-time insight into plant production, quality, energy consumption and equipment status information, avoid unplanned downtime. By establishing the Digital Twin (Digital mapping) of the factory, it is convenient to gain insight into the status of the production site and assist managers at all levels to make correct decisions.
Only automated production lines and industrial robot factories can't be called smart factories. Smart factory production process should not only realize automation, transparency, visualization, lean, and, in product testing, quality inspection and analysis, production logistics should also implement closed-loop integration and production process. Information sharing, just-in-time delivery and collaborative work are also required between multiple workshops in a factory.
The construction of intelligent factories fully integrates information technology, advanced manufacturing technology, automation technology, communication technology and artificial intelligence technology. Every enterprise in the building of the intelligent factory, should consider how to effective integration of the five big emerging in the field of technology, and enterprise combined closely with the product characteristics and manufacturing process, determine their own intelligent factory advance scheme.
The architecture of a smart factory.
The intelligent factory framework proposed by professor August Wilhelm Scheer, a renowned business process management expert, emphasizes the pivotal role of MES in the construction of smart factories.
Intelligent factory can be divided into five levels: infrastructure layer, intelligent equipment layer, intelligent production line layer, intelligent workshop layer and factory control layer:
The infrastructure layer.
Firstly, the enterprise should establish a wired or wireless factory network to realize automatic transmission of production instructions and automatic collection of equipment and production line information. To form an integrated workshop networking environment, to solve the problems of networking between devices in different communication protocols, as well as between PLC, CNC, robots, instrumentation/sensors and industrial control /IT systems; Using video monitoring system to monitor, identify and alarm the environment of the workshop; In addition, the factory should be in control of temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and industrial safety (including the safety of the industrial automation system, production environment safety and personnel security) intelligent level.
The intelligent equipment layer.
Intelligent equipment is an important means and tool for intelligent factory operation. Intelligent equipment mainly includes intelligent production equipment, intelligent detection equipment and intelligent logistics equipment. Manufacturing equipment, after the mechanical equipment to the numerical control equipment, is gradually developing into intelligent equipment. Intelligent processing center has the function of error compensation and temperature compensation, which can realize edge detection and edge processing. The industrial robot can accurately identify the workpiece by integrating the visual and force sensing sensors, and independently assemble, avoid the human and realize man-machine collaboration. The metal additive manufacturing equipment can directly manufacture the parts, and DMG MORI has developed a hybrid manufacturing and processing center capable of realizing both additive manufacturing and cutting processing. Intelligent logistics equipment includes the automatic three-dimensional warehouse, intelligent fixture, AGV, truss manipulator, suspension conveyor chain and so on. For example, Fanuc factory has applied an automated three-dimensional warehouse as a material transfer tool between intelligent processing units.
The intelligent production line.
The characteristics of the intelligent production line, in the process of production and assembly, can through the sensor, the numerical control system or RFID automatic production, quality, energy consumption, equipment performance (OEE) such as data acquisition, and through the electronic kanban displays real-time production status; To realize the cooperation between processes through the Ann lamp system; The production line can realize quick mold change and realize flexible automation. Able to support the production and assembly of a variety of similar products, adjust the process flexibly, and adapt to the production mode of small batch and variety. Have certain redundancy, if there is equipment failure on the production line, can adjust to other equipment production; For manually operated station, it can give intelligent hints.
The intelligent workshop floor.
To achieve the production process for effective control, need on the basis of the devices connected to the Internet, use of manufacturing execution system (MES), advanced production and production scheduling (APS), labor management, and other software for efficient production line and reasonable staff scheduling, improve equipment efficiency (OEE), realize traceability production process, reduce the wip inventory, application of human-machine interface (HMI), as well as industrial tablets and other mobile terminals, realize the paperless production process. In addition, still can use Digital Twin (Digital map) technology will MES data collected in a virtual 3 d real-time display of model in the workshop, not only provides workshop of VR (virtual reality) environment, but also can display equipment's actual state, realize the actual situation.
The intelligence of workshop logistics is very important to realize intelligent factory. Enterprises need to make full use of intelligent logistics equipment to realize the timely delivery of materials needed in the production process. The enterprise can realize the automation of material Picking through the Digital Picking System.
Factory control layer.
The control layer of the factory is mainly to realize the monitoring of the production process, and realize the operation of the factory through the production command system, and realize the coordination and resource scheduling between multiple workshops. Process DCS or PLC control system in manufacturing enterprises has been widely used for production control, in recent years, the discrete manufacturing enterprise also began to set up the central control room, real-time display of the factory operation data and charts, display equipment running status, and can be found in the image recognition technology of video monitoring problem of automatic alarm.